Part 3 – Chapters 2 & 3

PART 3

REPARATIONS
WHY AMERICA NEEDS TO PAY REPARATIONS
TO AFRICAN AMERICANS

CHAPTER TWO

Slavery, Segregation and White Male Oppression are the legacies that formed

Extreme Poverty – High Unemployment – and widespread cultural and community destruction in the African American community. 

The United States Government, and its Corporations and Institutions who participated in Slavery, Segregation and Jim Crow in this country need to give reparations and an apology to all of the descendants of Slavery. Every African American person in this country needs to be given a free education at the career, trade or skill they desire by the United States Government and every Corporation and Institution in this country and that would mean Institutions like Harvard University and Corporations like New York Life should pay for this education and physiological therapy for African Americans.

This education would go a long way to help correct a self-destructive condition resulting from a black state of mind that was created during our forefathers enslavement in America and the colonization by Western Europeans, with their guns and cannon, of West Africa, Africa and the all the darker peoples of the earth. This would help cleanse the horrendous conditions of life among poor Black people living in the housing projects and ghettos of the United States of America. A way of life that has emerged from White supremacy and the slave master mentality that is the vestige of a three century chattel slavery system in America, forcibly imposed upon Black people by the White people of today and their forefathers of yesterday, along with another century and a half of Jim Crow, segregation, discrimination, inequality, and injustice which continues to this day. 

My belief is that every African American should be given a free economic and financial education in the higher education schools of America. A free education at the community colleges, colleges and universities of their choice from the age of seventeen – twenty five and particularly at all of the schools that participated in the slave trade.  America, the United States of America, say you’re sorry and give some reparations, it would help still the pain and help create a new generation of confidence in America for African Americans

We as African Americans have been subjected to a level of murder, lynching’s, burnings, cruel and inhumane treatment, lies, deception, disrespect, jealousy, treachery, betrayal, and sabotage from within America that no other culture, except the Native American has ever experienced, and still we succeed and our success always makes America better, and so it shall be and always will be, always and forever.

One of the major problems with African Americans is that we need to hear an apology from the United States Government for the mass enslavement and slaughter of African Americans and the mass slaughter of Native Americans in this country. If you live in America and your ancestors were of Western European heritage and came to America only one or two generations ago, then you are reaping the privileges and benefits of the horrors of African American slavery and the mass extermination of Native Americans. 

Tens of millions of my fellow African American, brother’s and sister’s, forefathers were cast adrift in the millions from the blood, sweat and bondage of slavery in the United States of America in 1865.  Not knowing where they were, where they were from, who they were, where they were going or what they were; with no money, no land, no nothing; no wealthy cousin or rich father to see to them; no love for America, no food, no jobs, no education, no understanding of the white system of money; no understanding of the law, no understanding of land and power, no understanding of American government, no understanding of America, no real understanding of the White people who hated them. 

Migrating all over America, North, West, East, anywhere but South, and somehow forming unions of oneness, of communities and businesses. We made a way out of no way and survived, even flourished, only to have filth, death and drugs rammed down our throats and still we continue to survive without the proper education and understanding of language and finance to fight it off. 

Why reparations for the victims? The children’s, children’s, children’s, children’s, children’s, children’s, children’s, children of genocide and the mass murder of hundreds of millions of Africans and African Americans; for slavery, slave trading, racial apartheid of housing and economic laws and the one hundred and fifty years of Jim Crow laws that caused economic, physical, emotional abuse, harm, suffering and crimes against humanity; to the entire African American community by the 70% of White people today who’s father’s, father’s, father’s, father’s, father’s, father’s, father, committed these horrors and abuses against Africans and African Americans for the benefit of their children today.

From The Internet

In 2006, Brown University issued an extraordinary report detailing the university’s relationship with the slave trade and acknowledged the deep, intertwined history of the slave trade and the university and the role slave labor played in the very construction of the school.

But Brown is hardly the only venerable university in the United States that is reckoning with its hidden legacy of slavery, practically every college and university founded during colonial-era America — Harvard University, William & Mary, Yale, Princeton, the University of Pennsylvania, Columbia, Brown, Rutgers, and Dartmouth, has a history of slavery to confront, and most older institutions of higher education in America were built on the back of slave labor. The first eight presidents of Princeton – then the College of New Jersey – were slave owners, and enslaved people lived in the presidents’ houses and served the presidents and students.

In the evolution of the Harvard / Yale / Princeton faculties, and the founding moment of Yale, when the founding trustees gathered to plan out the organization and wrote the bylaws of the new school, they were accompanied by their slaves to that meeting.  It was interesting to see how much these academic institutions depended upon enslaved people, but also on the broader economy of the slave trade.

Many of the founders of these universities became quite wealthy as merchants profiting off of the slave trade. When you think about Columbia or the University of Pennsylvania, or Dartmouth, you think of them as wealthy, historic institutions. But these were pretty lean institutions in the eighteenth century, when they were founded. They were local institutions. The ministers and local activists founded these schools turned to local sources of wealth, and in the mid-Atlantic and New England, that meant they often turned to families who made their fortunes in the Atlantic trade, and a significant proportion of that trade was in African slaves.

Harvard University turned to local merchants in the seventeenth century, many of whom were British suppliers who sent fish, for instance, south to the West Indies. The cheapest quality fish was what was sent down to feed the enslaved population of the West Indies. Not only did Harvard’s New England backers have close ties to West Indian slavery, the school also followed these commercial networks south to seek out wealthy West Indian slave owners.

At Brown, when the original trustees were raising donations for the school, local residents of Providence and Newport donated cash, lumber, and other goods, and they donated the labor of their slaves. At the College of William and Mary, teams of slaves were used for the upkeep of various buildings, and the College actually held a fairly sizable population of slaves for use as campus servants, dedicated at times to specific buildings.

Some of the students at William and Mary brought slaves to campus with them. Eleazar Wheelock, the founder of Dartmouth, arrived in New Hampshire in 1770. He brought with him eight enslaved black people, and he wrote in his memoir about the early struggle to build the college.  He wrote about the use of his slaves to help lay out the fields and raise some of the original structures of the college to get things going. He has several places in his memoirs about the things he’d assigned his slaves to do to improve the campus and expand his ability to take in students. – From the Internet

As I have stated before the use of slave labor was highly prized in America, as slaves were the best builders and agriculturists in America.

Slave labor built the White House, Washington, DC and every major institution in every major city and state in America’s Northeast, Mid-Atlantic and South between 1626 and 1865.

Without Benjamin Banneker, a freed slave, our nation’s capital would not exist as we know it.  After a year of work, a Frenchman hired by George Washington to design the capital, L’Enfant, stormed off the job, taking all the plans.  Benjamin Banneker, placed on the planning committee at Thomas Jefferson’s request, saved the project by reproducing from memory, in two days, a complete layout of the streets, parks, and major buildings, including the White House. Thus Washington, D.C. itself can be considered a monument to the genius of this great man.

REPARATIONS
WHY AMERICA NEEDS TO PAY REPARATIONS
TO AFRICAN AMERICANS

CHAPTER THREE

Our forefathers have earned us reparation rights by their blood.

SOME INFORMATION IS FROM THE INTERNET – 95% of the African American freed slaves in 1865 could not read, write or do any kind of math. It was against the law for the White man’s property to read or write. If a slave was found to be able to read or write from 1650 – 1865, he or she could by the laws of the state be subject to 100 lashes from the whip or death by hanging, castration, and being burnt alive.

President Barack Obama is a true African American.  He is the embodiment and look of five hundred years of White men raping African women, he is the look of slavery in the United States, Europe, South America and the Caribbean. But his blood is not the blood, sweat and horror of American slavery.  He does not have one drop of the blood of slavery in his body.  His mother was a White woman and his father was an African man from Kenya.  Unlike 99% of African Americans not one ancestor was an American, Caribbean or South American slave.

Slavery rests at the foundation of American capitalism and is often synonymous with the sugar, tobacco, and/or cotton plantations that fueled the Southern economy.  What many may not know is that slavery also rests at the foundation of a great many notable corporations.  From New York Life to Bank of America, to JPMorgan Chase to AIG to Wells Fargo, several American banking and insurance corporations have benefited from slavery.  Many of these companies have acknowledged their involvement in slavery and offered apologies in an attempt to reconcile their tainted history but, is an apology enough?

History has consistently shown that slavery and segregation destroyed the family life and the quality of life for American slaves and our African American descendants and simultaneously enhanced the quality of life for White Americans.  From institutionalized racism to blocked social and economic opportunities, African Americans as a whole have been excluded from a way of life that all White Americans take for granted.

Apologies cannot compensate an entire people for all of the social and economic ills we faced as a result of our forefather’s enslavement. Apologies alone cannot address the residual effects of slavery and American segregation.  Apologies cannot provide job opportunities to people who for over one hundred and fifty years have experienced high unemployment rates. 

Had it not been for slave labor, many corporations would not be where they are today and for these companies to acknowledge their involvement in slavery and then simply say ‘Oh, I’m sorry”, is to downplay their role in and is little more than a futile attempt to correct a wrong by just an apology. 

Instead of apologies, American Corporations could give back to the African American community by donating billions to Historically Black Universities and Colleges so that every African American child who wants a tuition free College scholarship can have one at a Black University. 

And it’s not just American corporations. Profits from the slave trade accumulated the huge amounts of money in the Western European banks and in the Western European insurance companies needed to finance not only the global shipping companies that put Europe and America at the head of highly lucrative world trade, but profits from slavery in the western hemisphere and profits from the Atlantic Slave Trade also financed both the scientific and industrial revolutions of the entire Western and American world.

Slavery and the theft of Africa made Western Europe and America great.

Slavery and the slaughter and wholesale extinction of most of the Native Americans and tribes were the water and fertilizer of the whole modern era and is the source of global Western Europe and American power, economically, technologically and militarily. The whole modern technological era was watered and fertilized with the bones and blood of hundreds and hundreds of millions of dead Africans and dead Indians. American Slavery was not just in the American south but lasted in the north until the 1840’s

Slave holders and the commodity crops of the South had a strong influence on United States politics and economy; New York City’s economy was closely tied to the South through shipping and manufacturing, for instance. By 1822 half of its exports were related to cotton.

By 1810, 75 percent of all African Americans in the North were free. By 1840, virtually all African Americans in the North were free. Vermont’s 1777 constitution made no allowance for slavery. In Massachusetts, slavery was successfully challenged in court in 1783 in a freedom suit by Quock Walker as being in contradiction to the state’s new constitution of 1780 providing for equality of men. But freed slaves were highly subject to racial segregation, isolation, economic deprivation, social ostracism  in the North, and it took decades for some states to extend the franchise to them.

Most northern states passed legislation for gradual abolition. As a result of this gradualist approach, New York did not free its last slaves until 1829, Rhode Island had five slaves still listed in the 1840 census, Pennsylvania’s last slaves were freed in 1847, Connecticut did not completely abolish slavery until 1848, and slavery was not completely lifted in New Hampshire and New Jersey until the nationwide emancipation in 1865.

Many of the White Americans today who claimed their families arrived after slavery ended or were here during slavery, but had no real benefit from slavery are mistaken.  There would be little to nothing in America, in terms of infrastructure for the later immigrations of White people to come over and add to it, if it were not for the slave labor from Africa and the later African American Slaves and descendants who built the two hundred and fifty years of White American privilege and entitlement.

Slave labor cleared away the huge forests, built the early ports and shipping docks for trade between the Americas and Western Europe. Slave labor loaded and unloaded the departing and arriving ships. In the American continents in general, both in north and south America, slave labor dug the canals for commerce. Slave labor drained the swamps to clear away the habitat of the swarms of mosquitoes. Dramatically reducing mosquitoes and swamps made greater White settlement across America possible because of the wide spread malaria carried by large swarms of mosquitoes from Virginia to Brazil.  Blacks were used for this work because they were seen as more resistant to malaria than Whites and White diseases killed off the Indian slaves in droves.

Slave labor built the early roads and bridges in America. Slave labor laid down the cobblestones for wall street itself in New York City.  Four centuries of slave trading and slave labor built up the United States and Western European banking system, so that these same banks and financial institutions could later make the loans needed to build the industries and manufacturing plants that slaves built and free Blacks could not get a job in.

Slaves were also artisans and craftsmen and not just farm laborers . On the large plantations Slaves were the iron workers, carpenters, brick layers and builders. Often these skilled African American Slaves were “rented out” for profit to other whites by the slave owners and did skilled non-farming work.  We did not just plant, tend and harvest cotton, tobacco, rice and sugar cane.

Slavery was a source of wealth for many nations, and had been for centuries before the Western European and White American slave trading began. But the Western European and White American slave, segregation and racism system was especially evil, cruel, vile, and vicious. 

It was based on hundreds of thousands of Western European and American White men with guns and cannons, killing, beating, raping, torturing, humiliating and degrading Black men and women.  99% percent of African slaves brought from Africa, were docile farmers, agriculturists and skilled craftsmen.  Think of it as an alien race coming to America, destroying the military machine with superior weaponry and taking back to its planet only docile, White American water irrigators and farmers, because that’s what they needed. 

America and Western Europe didn’t need Africa’s warriors, they needed and took tens of millions of Africa’s farmers and laborers, men, women and children and put them and their descendants into a worldwide slavery and bondage, inside and outside Africa. A Slavery that would last more than five hundred years, destroying the fabric of Africa, Africans, those of African descent and African Americans to this very day.

Our ancestors were worked, and worked and worked and worked and worked and worked and worked and worked to death, into early graves, for five hundred years building America’s and Western Europe’s trillions and trillions of dollars of intergenerational wealth. Africans and people of African descent and color all over the world, including African Americans in America got nothing in return.

Yet one of the first things I can remember hearing as a child is how I have to pull myself up by my own bootstraps, and I remember replying to that in a poem I wrote as a child by saying, “But, Mr. Man, we ain’t got no bootstraps to pull ourselves up by”.  Intergenerational poverty, year after year poverty, everyday poverty in the United States of America is a bitch.  Just ask anybody in any poor black community, in any poor white community, in any city, in any town, in any village, in any housing project, in any ghetto in the United States of America, the so-called richest country on the face of the Earth, ever. Everyday poverty, until the day you die in poverty, is a bitch!!!

Never forget that the majority of the 14th century Western European common men and women were poverty stricken, disease ridden, malnourished, generally unwashed and horrifically nasty people who killed everything in their path and except for their ships and firearms, remained relatively technologically and economically backwards. That is, until the theft of Africa, India, the Americas and the five centuries of the Atlantic Slave Trade and White colonialism.  The murder, raping and theft of Africa and most countries of color under colonialism made White Western Europe and America as rich and powerful as they are today.